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A Comparison of Sound Power Levels from Portable Air Compressors Based Upon Test Methodologies Adopted by U.S. EPA and the EEC
December 1, 1980
On December 30, 1975, the United States government issued a regulation which set limits on the amount of noise emitted from portable air compressors. This regulation also specified the noise test procedure to determine the maximum sound pressure level of compressors. On Arpil 5, 1978, the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) submitted a propsed directive to the Council of the European Communities, that also would set limits on the noise emitted by portable air compressors within the European Economic Community (EEC). The proposed directive also specified the test procedure to determine the sound power emitted from a compressor. It became evident that both U.S. and European manufacturers may need to perform two separate noise tests on their compressors if they intend to meet both existing U.S. and the proposed EEC noise standards. At the request of industry, U.S. government representatives entered into discussions with representatives of the CEC in November 1975. These discussions led to an agreement between the CEC and the U.S. EPA to jointly conduct comparative noise tests of various size compressors to assess the potential for alignment of the existing U.S. and the proposed CEC test procedures. The test results presented in this report are the end product of those bilateral discussions and technical cooperation between the CEC and the EPA.
Economic and Social Impact of Occupational Noise Exposure Regulations
September 1, 1976
This report elaborates on the costs and benefits associated with alternative occupational noise exposure regulations. The limitations of cost/benefit analysis for social decision-making are enunciated. The impact of various regulatory alternatives for 85 dBA and 90 dBA criteria are analyzed.
The Economic Impact of Noise
December 31, 1971
A study has been undertaken to survey the economic impact of noise. Data available on the entire subject of noise and its abatement are so rudimentary that they do not lend themselves to even the most primitive economic analysis. It is demonstrated that the number of sources of noise in homes, in industry, on the highways, and in the air. It is growing at a dramatic rate. These noise sources are heterogeneous and transient, and, therefore, a universal solution for abatement of noise at the source is not available. From the economic viewpoint, it has been demonstrated that substantial costs are associated with noise and its abatement. Costs such as those associated with equipment redesign, right-of-way, and receiver insulation are discussed in detail. The most glaring data gaps highlight the need for research into the relationship between noise, its abatement, and its impact on: wages, prices, productivity, production costs, employment, balance of payment, real property values, and health. Research using the principles of economics must identify and analyze the most cost-effective alternative solutions to noise. A discussion of spending for noise research is included in the study.
The Economics of Noise Pollution
November 9, 1971
Public Health and Welfare Criteria for Noise
July 27, 1973
The Noise Control Act of 1972 requires that the Administrator of The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develop and publish criteria with respect to noise. These criteria are to "reflect the scientific knowledge most useful in indicating the kind and extent of all identifiable effects of noise on the public health and welfare which may be expected from differing quantities and qualities of noise." This document meets that requirement. The terms "criteria and standards" are generally used interchangeably in the scientific communities concerned with noise and its control. However, in accordance with the intent of the U.S. Congress, criteria for environmental pollutants are to reflect an honest appraisal of available knowledge relating to health and welfare effects of pollutants, (in this case, noise). The criteria are descriptions of cause and effect relationships. Standards and regulations must take into account not only the health and welfare considerations described in the criteria, but also, as called for in the Noise Control Act of 1972, technology, and cost of control. This criteria document, therefore, serves as a basis for the establishment of tile recommended environmental noise level goals to be related to the "Effects Document" called for by Section 5(a)(2) of the Noise Control Act. That document, along with this criteria document, will become the basis for standards and regulations called for by Sections 6 and 7 of the Noise Control Act. Further, the terms "health and welfare," as used in the Noise Control Act include, as in other environmental legislation, the physical and mental well being of the human populations. The terms also include other indirect effects, such as annoyance, interference with communication, loss of value and utility of property, and effects on other living things. In preparing this Criteria Document, EPA has taken into account the vast amount of data in the general professional literature and the information contained in the "Report to the President and Congress on Noise" and its supporting documents prepared under Title IV, PL 91-604. To bring to bear the views and opinions of some of the world's leading experts on current knowledge regarding the effects of noise, EPA sponsored an International Conference on Public Health Aspects of Noise) in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia in May 1973. The proceedings of that conference have been applied to the preparation of this document. They are available, as stated in the Appendix to this document.
Regulatory Analysis for the Noise Emission Regulations for Motorcycles and Motorcycle Exhaust Systems
December 1, 1980
This document presents the technical data and analyses used by EPA in developing the noise emission regulations fro motorcycles and motorcycle exhaust systems. The information presented includes a detailed discussion of: the motorcycle and motorcycle exhaust systems industry; baseline noise levels for current motorcycles; the noise control technology available; the adverse health and welfare impacts of motorcycle noise and the potential benefits of regulation; the expected costs and potential economic effects of regulation; and the noise measurement methodology.
Simplified Noise Strategy Manual
July 1, 1981
This report was prepared by EPA, Office of Noise Abatement and Control, in support of its function to provide technical assistance to communities. It is one of nine which comprises the Community Noise Assessment Manual. The Manual provides a comprehensive and computerized system for assessing the noise problems of a community and then planning a noise control strategy for its abatement. This manual's objectives are the same as those described in the "Strategy Guidelines for Developing a Community Noise Control Program." It provides however a simplified and manual system for planning the noise control strategy for abating a community's noise problems. It assists comunities in determining, in an objective manner, the efficient allocation of funds for reducing the adverse effects of noise in their community. By following a step-by-step written procedure, a noise planner can be assisted in selecting the most cost-effective noise abatement measures and the amount of money which should be spent on each. The primary criterion for optimization is based on economic and acoustical data gathered in the community.
See Behavioral Effects, Economic Effects, Health Effects.
See also Regulations and Proposed Regulations, State and Local Issues.
Guidance Manual for Police in State and Local Noise Enforcement Procedures
The purpose of this manual is to provide law enforcement personnel with the necessary technical skills and procedures to enforce State and Local motor vehicle noise laws. The manual has been written for use by the police officer charged with the enforcement responsibilities, as well as his supervisor.
Guidelines and Sample Training Workbook for Police Enforcement of Noise Regulations
February 1, 1980
This report is one of the products of a contract between the EPA's Noise Enforcement Division and Jack Faucett Associates, Inc. One purpose of the contract is to develop materials suitable for use in training State and local police officers to enforce their noise control laws.
Model Community Noise Control Ordinance
September 1, 1975
This report contains a model ordinance for use by cities and counties in the development of noise control ordinances tailored to local conditions and goals. It is a comprehensive, performance-standard noise ordinance intended to overcome enforcement problems associated with the outmoded nuisance law approach to noise control. This report contains sections on the control of noise from both stationary and mobile sources and includes land use planning provisions. A preamble gives important explanatory information for certain ordinance sections.
Model Noise Control Ordinance
The Model Noise Control Ordinance (model ordinance) is intended to be a basic tool which communities, both large and small, can use to construct noise control ordinances suited to local needs and conditions. The complete model ordinance, including optional provisions, is perhaps more suitable for larger communities, with populations of about 100,000 or more. Smaller communities and large communities with limited resources may wish to adopt only those provisions which address their most pressing noise problems. It is important that the community ensure that all provisions adopted are realistic in relation to local needs and conditions; that all provisions are consistent with one another, with other local law, and with State and Federal law; and, finally, that all provisions are clear and otherwise well drafted so that enforcement problems will be minimalized.
Proceedings Surface Transportation Exhaust System Noise Symposium
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Office of Noise Abatement and Control (EPA/ONAC) has initiated studies pursuant to requirements established under Section 8 of the Noise Control Act of 1972 which may lead to Federal requirements for the labeling of surface transportation vehicles and mufflers with respect to noise. One study is designed to assess the methodologies available to measure and communicate the noise reduction characteristics of surface transportation vehicle exhaust systems. The information communicated may be actual sound levels or information relative to sound levels (i.e., verification that a vehicle with a particular aftermarket muffler installed will meet an applicable standard), or other information such as warranty claims, proper maintenance and operator instructions, etc. The information would be used by dealers, repair facilities, enforcement personnel and the general public.
Toward a National Strategy for Noise Control
April 1, 1977
This document has been developed to continue the dialogue on the overall goals of the noise program, the role of government, the role of consumers, and the role of industry in noise control, along with the selection of specific abatement and enforcement activities for EPA. It establishes a general framework for making decisions on the best strategy that EPA can employ to combat noise pollution. The primary goal of the Agency in the noise pollution area is to promote an environment for all Americans, free from noise that jeopardizes their health or welfare. In order to reach this legislatively mandated objective five specific operational goals have been formulated. These are: (A)To take all practical steps to eliminate hearing loss resulting from noise exposure; (B)To reduce environmental noise exposure to an Ldn value of no more than 75 dB immediately; (C)To reduce noise exposure levels to Ldn 65 dB by vigorous regulatory and planning actions; (D)To strive for an eventual reduction of noise levels to an Ldn of 55 dB; and (E)To encourage and assist other Federal, State and local agencies in the adoption and implementation of long range noise control policies.